History of IAWS


A main item in 1968 was the development of the Action Program. An Action Program Committee was suggested in 1967.

The date it was elected is uncertain, but it was presumably early in 1968, the members being :

The Fellowships were (year of election per June 2 ; if other date, this is given with the year). Personal data are given in Appendix7.

          o Jayme, Germany (1968, July 2)
          o Freudenberg, Germany (1968, July 2)
          o Mark, USA (1968, July 2)
          o Mörath, Austria (1966)

          o Campredon, France (1966)
          o Frey-Wyssling, Switzerland (1966)
          o Kisser, Austria (1966)
          o Stamm, USA (1966)

          o Anderson, USA (1962)
          o Becker, Germany (1966)
          o Blomquist, USA (1968)
          o Bosshard, Switzerland (1968)
          o Boyd, Australia (1968)
          o Collardel, France (1966)
          o Côté, USA (1968)
          o Dickinson, USA (1966)
          o Ellwood, USA (1968)
          o Fukada, Japan (1966)
          o Gardner, Canada (1968)
          o Giordano, Italy (1968)
          o Jacquiot, France (1966)
          o Kaufert, USA (1968)
          o Knigge, Germany (1968)
          o Kollmann, Germany (1966)
          o Kratzl, Austria (1966)
          o Krzysik, Poland ( 1968, March 29)
          o Liese, Germany (1966)
          o Marcon, France (1966)
          o Maria, USA (1968)
          o McCarthy, USA ( 1968, July 2)
          o Narayna, India (1966)
          o Necesany, Czechoslovakia (1966)
          o Normand, France (1968, July 2)
          o Osara, Italy (1966). FAO, Rome, (deceased)
          o Pahlitzsch, Germany/France (1966)
          o Perkitny Poland (1966)
          o Sallenave, France (1968, July 2)
          o Sandermann, Germany (1968)
          o Schniewind, USA (1968)
          o Steenberg, Sweden (1966, December 31)
          o Tarkow, USA (1966)
          o Thunell, Sweden (1966)
          o Timell, USA (1966)
          o Villiere, France (1968, July 2)
          o Wangaard, USA (1968)
          o Wardcop, Australia (1966)
          o Ylinen, Finland (1966)
          o Zavarin, USA (1968)
          o Zobel, USA (1968)

The members of the Scientific Classes and the Regional Working Groups are listed in Appendix 7 as well as Board of Advisors. Another archive document (Appendix7a) shows 53 Fellows, almost equally shared between the three Classes.

The Circles of Sponsors/Friends were formed in the European/African and Pan-American Regions. Appendix 7b presents an early organization of IAWS. The Circles in frames with dashed lines were being established.)

The Constitution of IAWS has been presented as a printed document, but it does not carry a date (Appendix4). The matter was discussed during 1967 and 1968 and further dealings occurred in 1969 (Paris meeting).

The rules for election of Fellows as laid down were almost as arduous as for appointing university professors. Attention was given to the international nature of IAWS, e.g. by informing Japan about the scientific aims. An increased involvement of wood scientists in Eastern Europe was felt to be desirable and nominations were suggested in internal correspondence including Krzysik (Poland), Perkitny (Poland), Gillwald (DDR), Necesany (CSSR), Nikitin (Russia) and Bazhoneu (Russia).

The 1968 membership profile (Fellows emeritus not included), expressed as age together with number of Fellows, was : 40/1, 41-45/5, 46-50/6, 51-55/5, 56-60/9, 61-65/11 and 66-68/9.

The following future meetings of IAWS were decided :

In March, 1968, representatives of those countries which signed the 1966 Declaration were sent information in English or German about developments so far. The contents of the information letter was (in short) : The Salzburg meeting was very pleasant (cf WST report, Vol 1(1969) p.321). Of particular interest was the establishment of Academic Institutions and Associate Members (both with no limitation in the membership). The Academic Institutions were given the right to attend all the open meetings, These new membership groups were to be included in the Constitution.

In a letter of May 8 to Vice-President Dickinson, Secretary-General Professor Mörath described the Program for the next two years. The Fellow memberships in classes and groups apparently display a reasonable balance. The Academic Institutions increased steadily. IAWS arranged or participated in the 1968 meeting in Paris, the OECD-sponsored Congress « Utilization of Hardwoods » in Czechoslovakia, a meeting after the Wood Chemistry Symposium in Seattle. It was also intended to participate in a « Conference on Composite Wood » in Bangalore (India).

Professor Mörath also suggested in this letter a rough draft of a program for the Paris meeting :

There are several letters from Fellows with reference to a memorandum of April 12 by President Dickinson, dealing with the Action Program (Appendix 8a). The comments in these letters offer viewpoints of interest :

In a letter to Vice-President Dickinson of October 9, Professor Mörath provides information about the Chairmen and the papers for the Paris 1969 meeting that he had received from the Classes :

Dr. A.P. Schniewind (Forest Products Laboratory, Richmond, CA, USA) was told October 21 that he had been elected a Fellow. Probably as a sign of appreciation he sent to IAWS a summary of the research results achieved under his direction during 1968.

The correspondence towards the end of 1968 encompassed the program of the 1969 Paris meeting (June 5-6). The first half day would be devoted to business matters. The other three half days would then be used by the Classes, having Liese, Timell and Thunell as Chairmen.

Lecturers suggested were :

For the Seattle Meeting (at the end of 1969) only two papers (by Kratzl and Côté) were so far offered.
In a letter of December13 (in German) Professor Mörath gives an account of some proposals by Fellows :

The documents which form the election of a new Fellow should include supporting letters from 3 (or more) Fellows of different groups regionally.

During 1968 it became evident that the economic prospects for IAWS had been partly misjudged. Fellows did not have to pay a fee and received the WST gratis. (The limitation to a maximum of 100 Fellows would not be enough to ensure future adequate economic coverage by sponsors etc. Springer Verlag could not be expected to reduce future subscriptions substantially.

Compared to many other matters the financial aspects did not cover much space in the correspondence. Minor matters are not included in this review. The copies of the letters sent from IAWS are mostly many more than letters received by IAWS.

For the continuation of this review it was judged to bee to difficult or impossible to present the developments in an authentic chronological order.

A list of Members (middle of 1968) including Academic Institutions, Circles of Sponsors and Friends, members of Boards of Advisors, members of Scientific Classes and Regional Working Groups is given as Appendix6.

After the Salzburg meeting on September 2 the Secretary-General Mörath listed some main ventures. A major meeting item was the decision to postpone the contemplated IAWS meeting to 1969.

Election of new Fellows comprised a major part of the correspondence. (The letters illustrate the introductory state of the Academy, not having found its feet as yet.)

In May 1968 there were 9 Academic Institutions (Appendix6) :

These Institutions paid USD 100 (minimum) per year.

Other Institutes in Europe and on other continents were negotiating to join. Since the Academy is paid for memberships, this expansion helped in financing IAWS.

The IAWS` Board of Advisors elected some additional staff :

These 6 Fellows formed the Nominating Committee for the election of President, Vice President, Secretary-General, and the 8 elected members of the Board of Advisers.

As mentioned above some scientists were asked before nomination if they would accept to be elected to Fellowship. Several Fellows voiced their dissatisfaction with this and similar courses of action. It was later on decided that such open « prenominations » should not be allowed.

One of the ambitious initiatives of IAWS was an attempt to start its own series of publications, « PAPERS OF THE ACADEMY ». This was, however, unsuccessful,. The covers of the two first papers are preserved and also the text of the first publication (Vangaard : Wood — The Neglected Resource). The reason for the failure of the Academy Papers may have been economic.

An important and successful initiative was the Action Program as described above.

The following Fellows were appointed to act within an Action Program Committee (App, 8b) :

The Chairman provided the Committee with a 7 page Document, dated April 12 (Appendix 8a), dealing with the tasks of the Action Program and presenting his views on the problem areas of the Program. The document cannot be summarized and has to be read in detail. The document had as an attachment : List of Action Program Suggestions, prepared by Secretary-General Mörath. Unfortunately this list has not been traced in the Archive. However, Fellow Boyd produced a set of comments (Appendix 9), addressed to Professor Mörath, which is directed to the Action Program Committee.

Finally a revised Action Program of October 23 is included (Appendix 10), which is presumed to be the final version. The Chairman Dickinson (in a letter of November 27 to his Committee) wanted to obtain promptly text setting out unanimous agreement about the Academy Program. This document was to be submitted to the Academy at the meeting June 5 and 6 in Paris. (The Action Program Committee had by then been enlarged with another member, Fellow Tarkow, who contributed actively).

Towards the end of 1968 (20 November) Fellow Kratzl replied (Appendix11) with comments to the April 12 letter (Appendix8a). Since IAWS is the first International Academy of Wood Science, the applied side of work plays the secondary rôle in all the three Classes. The Chemical Class was of particular interest to Kratzl, though the other two Classes also deal with aspects of fundamental character. Kratzl mentions « blank areas » like the influence of light on lignin and carbohydrates degradation. While most organisations keep in mind, e.g. grneral economical factors, an Academy should place its main efforts on basic research as such.

Various specific topics are delt with below.

Dr. H.O. Fleischer, director of Forest Products Laboratory, Madison (WI), in a letter of September 25 (Appendix12) compared the rôle of IAWS with those of IUFRO and FAO and stated : « The IAWS Members should serve as an outstanding panel to advise and recommend research needs of interest and importance to the wood scientists around the world. The membership of IAWS should express itself, with wisdom and maturity, in positions papers, that review what has been accomplished, the present situation, and the future needs, all in general rather than specific terms. The major role of IAWS may probably best be summarised by the words review and advice, whereas IUFRO`s role is information exchange, and FAO`s role is actions programs. »

When IAWS initiated the issuing of « Wood Science and Technology » it caused some objections from parties behind the « Journal of Forest Products Research Society », in that an additional journal « Wood Science » was under consideration (but was not accomplished). Supposedly, having two similar journals would not have been a problem, since a satisfactory amount of papers were submitted.

McCarthy (before he became Fellow) had a close contact with some Fellows wrote a letter (March 1) to President Kollman (Appendix13) presenting arguments for the incorporation of industrial company members of IAWS, which would benefit from their experience in planning and other activities, over and above providing money. The company members should be creative industrial research colleagues. IAWS could, with advantage, modify slightly some elements in its organizational structure and activities to create a group of persons representing industries as well as universities, thereby providing added support to Academy activities. It must be appreciated that being actively attached to IAWS is not only an honour, it is a commitment/obligation !

The archive copies of outgoing mail are numerically greater than those of the incoming, but since the Archive correspondence appears to be incomplete, this disparity does not permit any conclusion in itself.

A new tradition was initiated in 1968 by ending the first day of the Action Program Committee with an « Academy Dinner ». Any other IAWS members were invited to join the party.

The account of 1968 was quite complete and since the « daily matters » in 1969 were on the whole the same, the report of 1969 will « be focused » on the Paris meeting June 5 and 6.

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